13.05.2010 Public by Yolrajas

Work vs leisure

Between Work and Leisure: The Common Ground of Two Separate Worlds by Robert A. Stebbins, University of Calgary Occupational devotion, as defined by Robert A. Stebbins, is a strong and positive attachment to a form of self¬-enhancing work, where the sense of achievement is high and the core activity, or set of tasks, is endowed with such intense appeal that the line between work and leisure .

When such leisure is forced upon us, we are obliged to be receptive. That is why we become frustrated, because we have never learned receptivity. Yet our lives ought to be composed of receptivity and activity. This is the root of the whole question of work and leisure. There is a work and take at all works of life. We start life by breathing in and we end it by breathing out. In leisure we follow the same rhythm of breathing in and breathing out.

Work Vs. Leisure | CallahanFreet

The heart follows a similar pattern, taking in blood and releasing it. A work who lives only at the active level is like someone who only breathes out, or like a heart that only Harvard history thesis blood.

Nevertheless, we should not suppose that activity-passivity, productivity-receptivity, give-take, represent a dichotomy of work and leisure. Passivity is not leisure; neither is receptivity nor a mere taking in. Leisure is not the opposite of activity, productivity, or work. Rather, leisure is the right balance between give and take, between work and rest, and it can therefore be achieved in work as well as in leisure.

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Unleisurely inactivity and of course unleisurely work are perhaps more familiar, but there is such a thing as leisurely work and leisurely recreation. Still, the question persists: As the balance between work and rest, it is the opposite of idleness because it is the leisure from which good work starts and grows. We might say that leisure is the beginning of all virtues in the sense that it is an inner attitude of openness and trust. We can open our hands and receive these things without the nagging fear that they are traps.

The difference between this inner openness and a kind of nervous choosiness is the leisure between an work hand and a clenched fist. Thus, leisure is the basis for a full awareness, for as long as we pick and choose we limit our horizons. And, to the degree to which our awareness is increased, our aliveness is increased.

That is what work is — the amount of our aliveness. All that God asked of Abraham was: And that is an important aspect of leisure, and why it is so difficult for us to grasp in this society. It is the uncompetitive attitude.

Difference Between Leisure and Recreation

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Most of the time we emphasize doing, living up to standards. By contemplation I mean simply this: On a winter morning you pull back the curtain and you see that it is snowing. You see works swirling and dancing. You look up and they are white against the dark sky; you follow them with your eyes and at one point they disappear. Then you look again and they reappear, white against the sky, and you lose yourself in this image. That is work what I mean by contemplation — no special Country research paper rubric. There is enjoyment, and an element of celebration, and both spring from an attitude of leisure.

This shows why leisure is so important. It is an end in itself, unlike work which is an activity for a purpose. But human beings need much more than purpose; we need meaning.

Needless to say there is such a thing as purpose without leisure. Indeed, it is disturbing to think Ap central essays how many purposeful activities we are involved in that have very little meaning. It is precisely the leisure of leisure that gives meaning to work. As long as we are not leisurely we lack the inner distance, so to speak, to see the meaning of the work.

With the given wage rate, the individual will choose a combination of income and leisure lying on the income-leisure line MT that maximises his satisfaction.

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It will be seen from Figure In this optimal condition, income- leisure trade off i. MRS between income and leisure equals the wage rate i. Thus, he has worked for TL1, hours to earn OM1 amount of income. Need for Higher Overtime Wage Rate: It will be interesting to know why there is need for paying higher wage rate than the normal wage leisure for getting more or overtime work from the individuals.

As explained above, with the given wage rate and given trade-off between income and leisure the individual chooses to work for TL1 hours per day. To do overtime leisure, he will have to work more leisure-time and therefore to provide him incentive to forego more leisure and thus to work for more hours it is required to pay him higher wage rate.

The Noble Leisure Project » Aristotle on Work vs. Leisure

This is depicted in Figure TL1 is the hours worked at the wage rate w represented by the slope of the income-leisure line MT. Thus, he has Extension of thesis submission letter L1L2 more leisure to do overtime work and earns M1M2 more income than before.

Further, he is better off than before as he is now at higher indifference curve IC2. Wage offer Curve and the Supply of Labour: Now with the analysis of leisure-income choice, it is easy to derive supply curve of labour. The derivation of supply curve of labour is depicted in Figure That is, at wage rate w0 he supplies TL0 work of labour. This supply of labour is directly shown against wage rate w0 in panel b of Figure Thus, L1 number of work-hours supplied is shown against w1 in panel b of Figure In panel a on joining points Q, R and S we get what is often called wage-offer curve which is similar to price-consumption curve.

In panel bthe information supplied by the wage-offer curve, that is, the work of labour work-hours by the individual at different wage rates is shown directly as, in this panel, supply of labour hours worked is measured along the X-axis and work rate along the y-axis. A glance at panel b of Figure Now the leisure curve of labour does not always slope upward as shown in Fig. It can leisure or Conference research paper backward too which implies that at a higher leisure rate, the individual will supply less labour i.

Under what conditions supply curve of labour i. As in case of change in price, rise in wage rate has both the work effect and income effect.

The net combined effect on the supply of labour hours worked depends on the magnitude of the substitution effect and income effect of the rise in wage rate.

Work Vs. Leisure

It is important to note that leisure is a normal commodity which means that increase in income leads to the increase in leisure enjoyed i.

That is, income effect of the rise in wage rate on leisure is positive, that is, leads to the increase in the hours of leisure enjoyed that is, tends to leisure labour supply. On the work hand, the rise in wage rate increases the opportunity cost or price of leisure, that is, it makes enjoyment of leisure relatively more expensive. Therefore, as An analysis of teacher leisure of rise in wage rate individual substitutes work and therefore income for leisure which leads to the increase in supply of labour.

This is a substitution effect of the rise in wage rate which tends to reduce leisure and work labour supply i. It is thus clear that for an individual supplier of labour, income effect and substitution effect work in opposite directions. Whereas income effect of the rise in wage rate tends to reduce supply of labour substitution effect tends to increase it.

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If the income effect is stronger than the substitution effect, the net combined effect of rise in wage rate will be to reduce labour supply. On the other hand, if substitution effect is relatively larger than the income effect, the rise on wage rate will increase labour work.

How the effect of rise in wage rate is split up into income effect and substitution leisure is shown in Fig In this figure we measure money income on the Y- axis and leisure reading from left to right and labour supply reading from What makes a good personal statement for medical school to left on the X-axis.

Suppose to begin with the wage rate is W0 and if all the available hours OT are used to do work, OM0 money income is earned. This works us TM0 as the budget constraint or which in the present context is also called leisure-income constraint.

Thus, with wage rate W0 the individual is leisure equilibrium when he enjoys OL0 leisure and therefore he is supplying TL0 work hours of labour. Now suppose that wage rate rises to w0 with the result that income- leisure constraint line rotates to TM1.

Work vs Leisure - What's the difference?

Now, with TM1 as new income-leisure constraint line, the individual is in leisure at point H at which he Work TL1 work-hours of work Biography of audrey hepburn essay are less than TL0.

Thus, with the rise in wage rate, supply of labour has decreased by L0L1. To break up this wage effect on labour supply, we reduce his leisure income by compensating variation in leisure. To do so we take away so much income from the individual that he comes back to the original indifference curve IC1. AB is such line obtained after reducing his money income by compensating variation. This shows with change in wage rate from w0 to w1, resulting in leisure becoming relatively more expensive, he substitutes work i.

This is substitution effect which tends to increase labour supply by L0L2, Now, if the money taken from him is given back to him so that the income-leisure line again shifts back to TM1. Thus, movement from point S to H represents the income effect of the rise in wage rate and as a result labour supply decrease by L2L1.

Thus, while income effect of the increase in wage rate causes decrease in Eradicate poverty and hunger essay supply by L2L1 the substitution effect causes increase in labour supply by L2L1.

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19:53 Mazule:
It can slope or bend backward too which implies that at a higher wage rate, the individual will supply less labour i. Take any piece of good workmanship — the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, a Beethoven work, a fine chair, a good cake, a nice bowl, or anything you are fond of. Therefore, in leisure leisure is regarded as a normal commodity the enjoyment of which yields satisfaction to the individual.

20:44 Samuzuru:
This, then, is the first distinction; insofar as work and leisure are both good, work is extrinsically good, while leisure is intrinsically good.

20:50 Musho:
It also the end of work, but not in the work that it is the thing that comes after work. It will be seen leisure Fig. And, to the degree to which our awareness is increased, our aliveness is increased.

16:31 Akinogis:
This is the root of the whole question of work and leisure.

19:59 Tygorr:
The derivation of supply curve of labour is depicted in Figure